Later in December 2015, Prime Minister Modi made history by making a surprise stop in Lahore on December 25 to meet President Sharif, on the first visit by an Indian prime minister to Pakistan in more than a decade. Modi also attended the wedding of President Sharif`s granddaughter in Raiwind. The agreement emphasizes respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of the other. It also mentions non-interference in the internal affairs of the other and hostile propaganda. (iii) Withdrawals will begin on the effective date of this agreement and will be concluded within 30 days. [4] The immediate outcome of the 1971 war between India and Pakistan was the change of government in Pakistan and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, leader of the majority party of West Pakistan, took power on 20 December 1971. The 1971 war led to the dismemberment of East Pakistan. Pakistan had lost nearly 54% of its population, and 93,000 of its soldiers and civilians were in possession of India. That is why the first challenges of the new government should resolve the ausdematon state of emergency and the problem of prisoners of war as quickly as possible. After the war, India and Pakistan were in direct contact through diplomatic channels, and both recognized the need to begin negotiations. From 12 January 1972 to 30 April 1972, the two countries were willing to engage in dialogue through press releases and discussions began. Finally, it was agreed that talks between Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indra Gandhi would begin on 28 June 1972. Shimla agreement: Donald Trump recently claimed in a statement that Prime Minister Modi had asked him to mediate in the Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan.

India has categorically rejected Trump`s allegations that the prime minister had not made such a request. Mr. Trump`s claim in Kashmir, however, turned into a huge controversy, in violation of the 1972 Shimla Accords. The United States has always maintained that the Kashmir issue must be resolved bilaterally by India and Pakistan. India also strongly asserted that its Kashmir dispute with Pakistan was bilateral and that no third parties played a role in this regard. That is why Trump`s recent statement marks a significant change in the previous position of the United States on this issue. While Kashmir spoke only of “maintaining the line of control,” a clause was added to India`s insistence that the two countries would settle their differences only through “peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or other peaceful mutually agreed means,” Guha writes. This theoretically excludes third-party mediation in Kashmir. The Simla Agreement, signed on 2 July 1972 by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was much more than a peace treaty aimed at reversing the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. the withdrawal of troops and the exchange of prisoners of war). It was a blue impression for good-neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan.

As part of the Simla Agreement, the two countries pledged to end the conflicts and confrontations that have affected relations in the past and to work towards lasting peace, friendship and cooperation.